Title

The Importance of Retrieval Failures to Long-Term Retention: A Metacognitive Explanation of the Spacing Effect

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2005

Publication Title

Journal of Memory and Language

Volume Number

52

Issue Number

4

DOI

10.1016/j.jml.2005.01.012

Abstract

Encoding strategies vary in their duration of effectiveness, and individuals can best identify and modify strategies that yield effects of short duration on the basis of retrieval failures. Multiple study sessions with long inter-session intervals are better than massed training at providing discriminative feedback that identifies encoding strategies of short duration. We report two investigations in which long intervals between study sessions yield substantial benefits to long-term retention, at a cost of only moderately longer individual study sessions. When individuals monitor and control encoding over an extended period, targets yielding the largest number of retrieval failures contribute substantially to the spacing advantage. These findings are relevant to theory and to educators whose primary interest in memory pertains to long-term maintenance of knowledge.

ISSN

0749-596X

First Page

566

Last Page

577

Link Out URL

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2005.01.012

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